The Stockbridge-Munsee members are descendants of tribes located in the Hudson River valley, New England and the mid-Atlantic areas, respectively, at the time of European encounter. The Stockbridge were Mahican from the upper Hudson area, who migrated into western Massachusetts in and near Stockbridge before the American Revolutionary War. They became Christianized Indians. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, they migrated west to central New York. They shared a 22,000-acre portion of the Oneida Reservation south of Syracuse.

The Munsee were Lenape located in the northern part of their total territory. As they spoke the Munsee dialect, one of the major three branches of the language, they were sometimes referred to by colonists and settlers by that term. They occupied coastal areas around present-day New York City, the western part of Long Island, and northern New Jersey. Lenape to the South spoke two other dialect variations.

Many Munsee-speaking Lenape had migrated from New Jersey to western Oneida County, New York by 1802 after the American Revolutionary War. They were joined by Brotherton Indians of New Jersey (from a reservation in Burlington County, New Jersey), as well as by the Stockbridge Mahican. Eventually the two groups agreed to removal together to present-day Wisconsin.

Treaty/Names-Census of the Munsees of New York, included in the treaty of September 3, 1839

“Whereas by Senate amendment to the treaty with the Menomonees of February [twenty] eighth, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, two townships of land on the east side of Winnebago Lake, Territory of Wisconsin, were set aside for the use of the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians, all formerly of the State of New York, but a part of whom had already removed to Wisconsin; and Whereas said Indianstook possession of said lands, but dissensions existing among them led to the treaty of September third, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, by which the east half of said two townships was retroceded to the United States, and in conformity to which a part of said Stockbridges and Munsees emigrated west of the Mississippi; and Whereas to relieve them from dissensions still existing by “An act for the relief of the Stockbridge tribe of Indians in the Territory of Wisconsin,” approved March third, one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, it was provided, that the remaining townships of land should be divided into lots and allotted between the individual members of said tribe; and Whereas a part of said tribe refused to be governed by the provisions of said act, and a subsequent act was passed on the sixth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, repealing the aforementioned act, but without making provision for bona fide purchasers of lots in the townships subdivided in conformity to the said first-named act; and Whereas it was found impracticable to carry into effect the provisions of the last-mentioned act, and to remedy all difficulties, a treaty was entered into on the twenty-fourth of November, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, wherein among other provisions, the tribe obligated itself to remove to the country west of the Mississippi set apart for them by the amendment to said treaty; and Whereas dissensions have yet been constantly existing amongst them, and many of the tribe refused to remove, when they were offered a location in Minnesota, and applied for a retrocession to them of the township of Stockbridge, which has been refused by the United States; and Whereas a majority of the said tribe of Stockbridges and the Munsees are averse to removing to Minnesota and prefer a new location in Wisconsin, and are desirous soon to remove and to resume agricultural pursuits, and gradually to prepare for citizenship, and a number of other members of the said tribe desire at the present time to sever…”

BOWMAN’s who signed the Treaty of 1839 between the Munsees and New York:

Elizabeth Bowman
Mary Jane Bowman
Edward Bowman

Possible alternative spellings of the Bowman family among the Mohican:



Bartholomew Bowman, born about 1834 is an interesting case as he represent a Bowman who begins his life among the Brotherton Lenape peoples of New Jersey. Then his family moves to Wisconsin and eventually we see them among the Stockbridge-Munsee Mohicans (see info above on Brotherton and Stockbridge-Munsee Mohican comnmunities). Mixing between these two communities was likely very common during this period considering their common origins, language and plight. His is the first Bowman line recorded joining the Mohican’s in Wisconsin from another northeastern tribal group. However, other evidence does point to the Bowman family already existing in that community before his family joins them. More research will hopefully make this clearer.

MARY JANE BRUSHEL was born on 10 May 1831 in Brothertown, Oneida Co., NY. She died in Richmond, Shawano Co., WI. She married EDWARD BOWMAN. He was born on 15 Feb 1835 in New Jersey. He died on 02 Apr 1890

1880 United States Federal Census
Name: Mary Bowman
Age: 48
Birth Year: abt 1832
Birthplace: Wisconsin
Home in 1880: Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin
Race: Indian (Native American)
Gender: Female
Spouse’s Name: Edward Bowman
Father’s Birthplace: New York
Mother’s Birthplace: New York
Occupation: Keeps House
Edward Bowman 44
Mary Bowman 48
Samuel Bowman 23
Emmeline Bowman 16
John Bowman 13
Beaumont Bowman 10
Frank Leroy 40
Susan Leroy 22
Lewis Leroy 1


Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin Family History Library Film 1255447
NA Film Number T9-1447
Page Number 404A

Edward BOWMAN Self M Male NA 44 WI Squatter NY NY
Mary BOWMAN Wife M Female NA 48 WI Keeps House NY NY
Samuel BOWMAN Son S Male NA 23 WI Laborer WI WI
Emmeline BOWMAN Dau S Female NA 16 WI At Home WI WI
John BOWMAN Son S Male NA 13 WI At Home WI WI
Beaumont BOWMAN Son S Male NA 10 WI At Home WI WI
Frank LEROY SonL M Male NA 40 WI Laborer WI WI
Susan LEROY Dau M Female NA 22 WI Keeps House WI WI
Lewis LEROY Son S Male NA 1 WI WI WI

1880 – Wisconsin – Calumet Co., Stockbridge
Bowman, Bartholmew Indian age 53 born New Jersey
Chicks, Elizabeth Indian age 70 born New Jersey Mother
Hannah Indian age 32 born WI Half-sister
Marian Mulatto age 12 born WI Nephew
Mary Jane Mulatto age 10 born WI Niece
Louis Mulatto age 8 born WI nephew
Orn Mulatto age 6 born WI Nephew
Welch, Ezekiah Mulatto age 20 Nephew
Bowman, Job Indian age 36 Brother

1880 United States Federal Census
about Samuel Bowman
Name: Samuel Bowman
Age: 23
Birth Year: abt 1857
Birthplace: Wisconsin
Home in 1880: Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin
Race: Indian (Native American)
Gender: Male
Relation to Head of House: Son
Marital Status: Single
Father’s Name: Edward Bowman
Father’s Birthplace: Wisconsin
Mother’s Name: Mary Bowman
Mother’s Birthplace: Wisconsin

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